Litigation cases are private citizens or businesses solving disputes in court.
The dispute may be over compensation, a fault in a housing sale or the dissolving of a sale, a contracts legal status, an employment contract, a room rental matter, a debt, or any other dispute or contract matter.
A civil suit follows in cases where private legal entities are in a legal relationship, in which they have different views on conditions of the contract content. Because of the dispute the matter is taken to court to be considered and settled.
A civil suit is instituted when a written application for a summons is sent to the district court. In the application the plaintiff explains what he is demanding and on what grounds. A copy of the contract or of whatever agreement the plaintiff is referring to, must be attached to the application. The plaintiff has to also name the witnesses in the application.
If the defendant denies the claim, everyone involved is called together for an oral preparation hearing. In this pretrial meeting the judge clarifies the matters that the parties are disagreeing over. If a settlement is reached in this meeting, the district court ratifies the settlement. Thus the matter is settled once and for all. If a settlement is not reached, the pretrial preparation is ended and the matter goes to the main hearing.
In a civil suit the decision or so called verdict is given directly after the main hearing or later in the chancery. It is usually possible to use due process insurance in court cases, in which case the insurance company will pay for the major part of the legal fees. Also legal aid, which means free trial proceedings, is available for court cases.